ARPHA Conference Abstracts : Conference Abstract
Conference Abstract
High molecular diversity in the Carabus variolosus/nodulosus complex
expand article infoDietrich Mossakowski, Radek Hejda§, Stefan Müller-Kroehling|, Wolfgang Paill, Florin Prunar#, Ivan Rapuzzi¤
‡ Seeweg 10, 23942 Gross Schwansee, Germany
§ AOPK ČR, Kaplanova 1931/1, 148 00 Praha 11 – Chodov, Czech Republic
| Bavarian LWF, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 1, 85354 Freising, Germany
¶ Studienzentrum Naturkunde, Weinzöttlstraße 16, 8045 Graz, Austria
# Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 119 Calea Aradului, 300645 Timisoara, Romania
¤ Via Cialla, 47, 33040 Prepotto (UD), Italy
Open Access


Starting point of this study was the problem considering the status of Carabus variolous and C. nodulosus: French and some German authors classified them as species, most German authors as subspecies and Casale as semispecies.

We performed analyses of mitochondrial genes (COI-5', COI-3', ND5) as well as nuclear ones (ITS2, wingless) and analysed the DNA sequences using Seqotron, CLUSTALX (editing and alignment), MEGA, DNAML, SplitsTree (phylogeny and network), 4SALE (compensatory base changes), and BEAST (coalescence).

We could study specimens from all regions except the western most part of the distribution area (Massif Central and French Jura, France).

The mitochondrial DNA data resulted in a geographic pattern of high diversity within both taxa indicating a series of glacial refuges. In addition, a considerably large area was found were introgressive hybridisation took place in the past - at least two times by nodulosus of different regions into variolosus.

The nuclear DNA data show a clear and constant difference between both taxa.

In consequence, this complex of forms may be characterised as semispecies from an evolutionary viewpoint but taxonomically as one species because of  hybridisation and the lack of compensatory bases changes.


Species status, introgressive hybridisation, multiple refuges

Presenting author

Dietrich Mossakowski

Presented at

19thECM oral communication